Article | Research in Organizational Behavior | 2011

The Dynamics of Warmth and Competence Judgments, and Their Outcomes in Organizations

by Amy J.C. Cuddy, Peter Glick and Anna Beninger


Two traits-warmth and competence-govern social judgments of individuals and groups, and these judgments shape people's emotions and behaviors. This paper describes the causes and consequences of warmth and competence judgments; how, when, and why they determine significant professional and organizational outcomes, such as hiring, employee evaluation, and allocation of tasks and resources. Warmth and competence represent the central dimensions of group stereotypes, the majority of which are ambivalent-characterizing groups as warm but incompetent (e.g., older people, working mothers) or competent but cold (e.g., model minorities, female leaders), in turn eliciting ambivalent feelings (i.e., pity and envy, respectively) and actions toward members of those groups. However, through nonverbal behaviors that subtly communicate warmth and competence information, people can manage the impressions they make on colleagues, potential employers, and possible investors. Finally, we discuss important directions for future research, such as investigating the causes and consequences of how organizations and industries are evaluated on warmth and competence.

Keywords: Judgments; Organizations; Emotions; Behavior; Selection and Staffing; Performance Evaluation; Resource Allocation; Valuation; Competency and Skills; Information; Research;


Cuddy, Amy J.C., Peter Glick, and Anna Beninger. "The Dynamics of Warmth and Competence Judgments, and Their Outcomes in Organizations." Research in Organizational Behavior 31 (2011): 73–98.