Working Paper | HBS Working Paper Series | 2011

Spatial Determinants of Entrepreneurship in India

by Ejaz Ghani, William R. Kerr and Stephen O'Connell


We analyze the spatial determinants of entrepreneurship in India in the manufacturing and services sectors. Among general district traits, quality of physical infrastructure and workforce education are the strongest predictors of entry, with labor laws and household banking quality also playing important roles. Looking at the district-industry level, we find extensive evidence of agglomeration economies among manufacturing industries. In particular, supportive incumbent industrial structures for input and output markets are strongly linked to higher establishment entry rates. We also find substantial evidence for the Chinitz effect where small local incumbent suppliers encourage entry. The importance of agglomeration economies for entry hold when considering changes in India's incumbent industry structures from 1989, determined before large-scale deregulation began, to 2005.

Keywords: Education; Entrepreneurship; Industry Structures; Infrastructure; Manufacturing Industry; Service Industry; India;


Ghani, Ejaz, William R. Kerr, and Stephen O'Connell. "Spatial Determinants of Entrepreneurship in India." Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 12-027, October 2011.