Background Note | HBS Case Collection | September 2010 (Revised February 2013)

The Cage-Free Egg Movement

by Michael W. Toffel and Stephanie van Sice


Describes the social movement confronting conventional egg production techniques (battery cages) based on animal welfare concerns, and some merits and drawbacks of cage-free alternatives. Highlights animal rights activist campaigns, political and regulatory responses, and announcements by some companies to shift egg purchases or sales from conventional to alternative production methods.

Keywords: Animal-Based Agribusiness; Governing Rules, Regulations, and Reforms; Rights; Supply Chain Management; Natural Environment; Social Issues; Competitive Strategy; Agriculture and Agribusiness Industry;


Toffel, Michael W., and Stephanie van Sice. "The Cage-Free Egg Movement." Harvard Business School Background Note 611-021, September 2010. (Revised February 2013.)