Chapter | The Sage Handbook of Organizational Behavior | 2008

Cross-cultural Research in Organizational Behavior

by Heidi K. Gardner and P. Christopher Earley


Globalization and regionalization of business have increasingly compelled researchers to integrate the concept of cultural variation into business research and practice. This chapter addresses how culture links to organizational phenomena at the individual, group, and firm levels. We argue for a need to shift from proximal, intra-individual influences (i.e., cultural values) to distal influences in order to determine how culture shapes behavior and cognition. The chapter reviews key classic frameworks that underlie cross-cultural theory and outlines more recent research that elucidates specific mechanisms for how culture affects the actors' behaviors. Finally, we highlight recent advances in cross-cultural research, suggesting how new directions can shape future research.

Keywords: Values and Beliefs; Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Organizational Culture; Research; Behavior; Culture;


Gardner, Heidi K., and P. Christopher Earley. "Cross-cultural Research in Organizational Behavior." In The Sage Handbook of Organizational Behavior. 2 vols. Edited by C.L. Cooper, J. Barling, and S. Clegg. Sage Publications, 2008.