Article | Advances in Experimental Social Psychology | 2008

Warmth and Competence As Universal Dimensions of Social Perception: The Stereotype Content Model and the BIAS Map

by A. J.C. Cuddy, S. T. Fiske and P. Glick

Abstract

The stereotype content model (SCM) defines two fundamental dimensions of social perception, warmth and competence, predicted respectively by perceived competition and status. Combinations of warmth and competence generate distinct emotions of admiration, contempt, envy, and pity. From these intergroup emotions and stereotypes, the behavior from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map predicts distinct behaviors: active and passive, facilitative and harmful. After defining warmth/communion and competence/agency, the chapter integrates converging work documenting the centrality of these dimensions in interpersonal as well as intergroup perception. Structural origins of warmth and competence perceptions result from competitors judged as not warm, and allies judged as warm; high status confers competence and low status incompetence. Warmth and competence judgments support systematic patterns of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions, including ambivalent prejudices. Past views of prejudice as a univalent antipathy have obscured the unique responses toward groups stereotyped as competent but not warm or warm but not competent. Finally, the chapter addresses unresolved issues and future research directions.

Keywords: Perception; Competency and Skills; Prejudice and Bias; Emotions; Business Model; Behavior; Research; Competition; Status and Position; Cognition and Thinking; Groups and Teams;

Citation:

Cuddy, A. J.C., S. T. Fiske, and P. Glick. "Warmth and Competence As Universal Dimensions of Social Perception: The Stereotype Content Model and the BIAS Map." Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 40 (2008): 61–149.