Article | British Journal of Social Psychology | 2009

Stereotype Content Model across Cultures: Universal Similarities and Some Differences

by A.J.C. Cuddy, S.T. Fiske, V.S.Y. Kwan, P. Glick, S. Demoulin, J. Ph. Leyens and M.H. Bond

Abstract

The stereotype content model (SCM; Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups' similarities and one difference across 10 non-U.S. nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (N=1028) support three hypothesized cross-cultural similarities: (a) perceived warmth and competence reliably differentiate societal group stereotypes; (b) many outgroups receive mixed stereotypes (high on one dimension; low on the other); and (c) high-status groups stereotypically are competent, and competitive groups stereotypically lack warmth. Data uncover one consequential cross-cultural difference: (d) the more collectivist cultures do not locate reference groups (ingroups and societal prototype groups) in the most positive cluster (high-competence/high-warmth), unlike individualist data. This demonstrates outgroup derogation without obvious reference-group favoritism. SCM is a pancultural tool for predicting group stereotypes from structural relations with other groups in society and comparing across societies.

Keywords: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Border Issues; Management Analysis, Tools, and Techniques; Relationships; Groups and Teams; Prejudice and Bias; Culture; Societal Protocols; East Asia; Europe;

Citation:

Cuddy, A.J.C., S.T. Fiske, V.S.Y. Kwan, P. Glick, S. Demoulin, J. Ph. Leyens, and M.H. Bond. "Stereotype Content Model across Cultures: Universal Similarities and Some Differences." British Journal of Social Psychology 48 (2009).