Background Note | HBS Case Collection | January 2003

Institutions for Collaboration: Overview

by Michael E. Porter and Willis M. Emmons III


Provides an overview of the wide variety of organizations other than firms, government ministries and regulatory agencies, and universities that may have significant effects on competitiveness. These intermediary entities, referred to as institutions for collaboration (IFCs), include, for example, chambers of commerce, industry associations, professional associations, trade unions, technology transfer organizations, quality centers, think tanks, university alumni associations, and others.

Keywords: Globalization; Labor Unions; Organizations; Competitive Strategy; Technology;


Porter, Michael E., and Willis M. Emmons III. "Institutions for Collaboration: Overview." Harvard Business School Background Note 703-436, January 2003.