Case | HBS Case Collection | February 1995 (Revised February 1998)

India in the 1990s

by George C. Lodge and Ahu Bhasin


Describes the efforts of Indian Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao to deregulate and open up the Indian economy in the early 1990s. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered, reflected in the poor showing of the ruling Congress Party in state elections in December 1994, and raises the questions: Why is economic change so difficult in India? What are the obstacles to Rao's reforms? What is the likelihood that he will succeed? Contains a brief history of India's economic, political, and social development since it achieved independence in 1947.

Keywords: Development Economics; Emerging Markets; Social Issues; Economic Growth; Government and Politics; India;


Lodge, George C., and Ahu Bhasin. "India in the 1990s." Harvard Business School Case 795-119, February 1995. (Revised February 1998.)