Article | Quarterly Journal of Economics | August 2007

Remedying Education: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments in India

by A. Banerjee, Shawn A. Cole, E. Duflo and L. Linden


This paper presents the results of two randomized experiments conducted in schools in urban India. A remedial education program hired young women to teach students lagging behind in basic literacy and numeracy skills. It increased average test scores of all children in treatment schools by 0.28 standard deviation, mostly due to large gains experienced by children at the bottom of the test-score distribution. A computer-assisted learning program focusing on math increased math scores by 0.47 standard deviation. One year after the programs were over initial gains remained significant for targeted children, but they faded to about 0.10 standard deviation.

Keywords: Literacy Characteristics; Teaching; Performance Improvement; Competency and Skills; India;


Banerjee, A., Shawn A. Cole, E. Duflo, and L. Linden. "Remedying Education: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments in India." Quarterly Journal of Economics 122, no. 3 (August 2007): 1235–1264.